| Mark 16 - Versions
| Mark 16 Text (WEB)
- When the Sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, bought spices, that they might come and anoint him.
- Very early on the first day of the week, they came to the tomb when the sun had risen.
- They were saying among themselves, "Who will roll away the stone from the door of the tomb for us?"
- for it was very big. Looking up, they saw that the stone was rolled back.
- Entering into the tomb, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, dressed in a white robe, and they were amazed.
- He said to them, "Don't be amazed. You seek Jesus, the Nazarene, who has been crucified. He has risen. He is not here. Behold, the place where they laid him!
- But go, tell his disciples and Peter, 'He goes before you into Galilee. There you will see him, as he said to you.'"
- They went out, and fled from the tomb, for trembling and astonishment had come on them. They said nothing to anyone; for they were afraid.
- Now when he had risen early on the first day of the week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, from whom he had cast out seven demons.
- She went and told those who had been with him, as they mourned and wept.
- When they heard that he was alive, and had been seen by her, they disbelieved.
- After these things he was revealed in another form to two of them, as they walked, on their way into the country.
- They went away and told it to the rest. They didn't believe them, either.
- Afterward he was revealed to the eleven themselves as they sat at the table, and he rebuked them for their unbelief and hardness of heart, because they didn't believe those who had seen him after he had risen.
- He said to them, "Go into all the world, and preach the Good News to the whole creation.
- He who believes and is baptized will be saved; but he who disbelieves will be condemned.
- These signs will accompany those who believe: in my name they will cast out demons; they will speak with new languages;
- they will take up serpents; and if they drink any deadly thing, it will in no way hurt them; they will lay hands on the sick, and they will recover."
- So then the Lord, after he had spoken to them, was received up into heaven, and sat down at the right hand of God.
- They went out, and preached everywhere, the Lord working with them, and confirming the word by the signs that followed. Amen.
| Mark 16 Text (Hebrew)
- ויהי כאשר עבר יום השבת ותקנינה מרים המגגדלית ומרים אם יעקב ושלמית סמים לבוא ולסוך אתו בהם׃
- ובאחד בשבת בבקר השכם באו אל הקבר כזרוח השמש׃
- ותאמרנה אשה אל אחותה מי יגל לנו את האבן מעל פתח הקבר׃
- ובהביטן ראו והנה נגללה האבן כי היתה גדלה מאד׃
- ותבאנה אל תוך הקבר ותראינה בחור אחד ישב מימין והוא עטה שמלה לבנה ותשתוממנה׃
- ויאמר אליהן אל תשתוממנה את ישוע הנצרי אתן מבקשות את הנצלב הוא קם איננו פה הנה זה המקום אשר השכיבהו בו׃
- אך לכנה ואמרתן אל תלמידיו ואל פטרוס כי הולך הוא לפניכם הגלילה ושם תראהו כאשר אמר לכם׃
- ותמהרנה לצאת ותברחנה מן הקבר כי אחזתן רעדה ותמהון ולא הגידו דבר לאיש כי יראו׃
- והוא כאשר קם מן המתים באחד בשבת נראה בראשונה אל מרים המגדלית אשר גרש ממנה שבעה שדים׃
- ותלך ותגד לאנשים אשר היו עמו והם מתאבלים ובכים׃
- וכאשר שמעו כי חי ונראה אליה לא האמינו לה׃
- ואחרי כן נראה בדמות אחרת לשנים מהם בהיתם מתהלכים בצאתם השדה׃
- והם הלכו ויגידו לאחרים וגם להם לא האמינו׃
- ובאחרנה נראה לעשתי העשר בהיותם מסבים ויחרף חסרון אמונתם וקשי לבבם אשר לא האמינו לראים אתו נעור מן המתים׃
- ויאמר אליהם לכו אל כל העולם וקראו את הבשורה לכל הבריאה׃
- המאמין ונטבל הוא יושע ואשר לא יאמין יאשם׃
- ואלה האתות אשר ילוו אל המאמינים יגרשו שדים בשמי ובלשנות חדשות ידברו׃
- נחשים ישאו בידיהם ואם ישתו סם המות לא יזיקם על חולים ישימו את ידיהם וייטב להם׃
- ויהי אחרי אשר דבר אתם האדון וינשא השמימה וישב לימין האלהים׃
- והמה יצאו ויקראו בכל המקמות והאדון עזרם ויחזק את הדבר באתות הבאות אחרי דברם אמן׃
| Mark 16 Text (Latin)
- Et cum transisset sabbatum, Maria Magdalene, et Maria Jacobi, et Salome emerunt aromata ut venientes ungerent Jesum.
- Et valde mane una sabbatorum, veniunt ad monumentum, orto jam sole.
- Et dicebant ad invicem : Quis revolvet nobis lapidem ab ostio monumenti ?
- Et respicientes viderunt revolutum lapidem. Erat quippe magnus valde.
- Et introëuntes in monumentum viderunt juvenem sedentem in dextris, coopertum stola candida, et obstupuerunt.
- Qui dicit illis : Nolite expavescere : Jesum quæritis Nazarenum, crucifixum : surrexit, non est hic, ecce locus ubi posuerunt eum.
- Sed ite, dicite discipulis ejus, et Petro, quia præcedit vos in Galilæam : ibi eum videbitis, sicut dixit vobis.
- At illæ exeuntes, fugerunt de monumento : invaserat enim eas tremor et pavor : et nemini quidquam dixerunt : timebant enim.
- Surgens autem mane prima sabbati, apparuit primo Mariæ Magdalene, de qua ejecerat septem dæmonia.
- Illa vadens nuntiavit his, qui cum eo fuerant, lugentibus et flentibus.
- Et illi audientes quia viveret, et visus esset ab ea, non crediderunt.
- Post hæc autem duobus ex his ambulantibus ostensus est in alia effigie, euntibus in villam :
- et illi euntes nuntiaverunt ceteris : nec illis crediderunt.
- Novissime recumbentibus illis undecim apparuit : et exprobravit incredulitatem eorum et duritiam cordis : quia iis, qui viderant eum resurrexisse, non crediderunt.
- Et dixit eis : Euntes in mundum universum prædicate Evangelium omni creaturæ.
- Qui crediderit, et baptizatus fuerit, salvus erit : qui vero non crediderit, condemnabitur.
- Signa autem eos qui crediderint, hæc sequentur : in nomine meo dæmonia ejicient : linguis loquentur novis :
- serpentes tollent : et si mortiferum quid biberint, non eis nocebit : super ægros manus imponent, et bene habebunt.
- Et Dominus quidem Jesus postquam locutus est eis, assumptus est in cælum, et sedet a dextris Dei.
- Illi autem profecti prædicaverunt ubique, Domino cooperante, et sermonem confirmante, sequentibus signis.
| Mark 16 Text (KJV)
- And when the sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, had bought sweet spices, that they might come and anoint him.
- And very early in the morning the first day of the week, they came unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun.
- And they said among themselves, Who shall roll us away the stone from the door of the sepulchre?
- And when they looked, they saw that the stone was rolled away: for it was very great.
- And entering into the sepulchre, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, clothed in a long white garment; and they were affrighted.
- And he saith unto them, Be not affrighted: Ye seek Jesus of Nazareth, which was crucified: he is risen; he is not here: behold the place where they laid him.
- But go your way, tell his disciples and Peter that he goeth before you into Galilee: there shall ye see him, as he said unto you.
- And they went out quickly, and fled from the sepulchre; for they trembled and were amazed: neither said they any thing to any man; for they were afraid.
- Now when Jesus was risen early the first day of the week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, out of whom he had cast seven devils.
- And she went and told them that had been with him, as they mourned and wept.
- And they, when they had heard that he was alive, and had been seen of her, believed not.
- After that he appeared in another form unto two of them, as they walked, and went into the country.
- And they went and told it unto the residue: neither believed they them.
- Afterward he appeared unto the eleven as they sat at meat, and upbraided them with their unbelief and hardness of heart, because they believed not them which had seen him after he was risen.
- And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature.
- He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be damned.
- And these signs shall follow them that believe; In my name shall they cast out devils; they shall speak with new tongues;
- They shall take up serpents; and if they drink any deadly thing, it shall not hurt them; they shall lay hands on the sick, and they shall recover.
- So then after the Lord had spoken unto them, he was received up into heaven, and sat on the right hand of God.
- And they went forth, and preached everywhere, the Lord working with them, and confirming the word with signs following. Amen.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Mark 16 is the final chapter of the Gospel of Mark in the New Testament. It recounts some of the events surrounding the resurrection of Jesus, starting with the discovery of Jesus' empty tomb by Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James and Salome. Here they find a man dressed in white who announces Jesus' resurrection. In the disputed longer ending section Mary Magdalene sees the resurrected Jesus then tells other followers of Jesus about this, but they do not believe her. Jesus then appears to the Eleven (twelve Apostles minus one), gives them instructions, and then is taken up into heaven.
There is much debate about the ending of Mark, and some textual problems - there are nine different endings (or combinations of endings) known - but most of the debate focuses around the so-called 'longer' ending (16:9-20). There is evidence that these verses are not part of the original document, but rather an ancient "completion" of it. According to Daniel J. Harrington they are probably a second century compilation of resurrection stories mostly found in Luke 24 and some from John 20. John J. Kilgallen however believes that they were more likely composed in the first century.
The empty tomb
Mark says the Sabbath is now over and Mary Magdalene, another Mary and Salome, mentioned in Mark 15:40, come to annoint Jesus' body, which Luke 24: agrees with. John 20:1 and Matthew 28:1 simply say Mary went to the tomb.
They wonder how they will remove the stone over the tomb. They then find the stone already gone and go into the tomb. This shows that, according to Mark, they did not expect to find a resurrected but dead Jesus. They find a "young" man dressed in a white robe who tells them:
- "Don't be alarmed," he said. "You are looking for Jesus the Nazarene, who was crucified. He has risen! He is not here. See the place where they laid him. But go, tell his disciples and Peter, 'He is going ahead of you into Galilee. There you will see him, just as he told you.' " (Mark 16:6 - Mark 16:7)
According to Matthew 28:5 this "man" was an angel. According Luke there were two men. John says there were two angels, but that Mary saw them after finding the empty tomb and showing it to the other disciples. She comes back to the tomb, talks to the angels, and then Jesus appears to her.
Mark uses the word neaniskos for young, a word he used to describe the man who fled at Jesus' arrest in Mark 14:51-52. Jesus had predicted his resurrection and returning to Galilee during the Last Supper in Mark 14:28. Mark uses the passive verb form egerthe - apparently 'he was raised' indicating a raising by God.
The women who were afraid, then flee and keep quiet about what they saw. Fear is a common human reaction to the divine presence in the Bible. This is where the undisputed part of the book ends. Jesus is thus announced to have been resurrected from the dead and to have gone into Galilee. It is probable that Mark's intended readers already knew the traditions of Jesus' appearances and Mark leaves the story here to highlight the resurrection and leave anticipation of the parousia. Some have argued that this announcement of the resurrection and Jesus going to Galilee is the parousia, but Raymond E. Brown argues that a parousia confined only to Galilee is improbable. No description of the resurrected Jesus has been given perhaps because Mark did not want to try to describe the nature of the divine resurrected Jesus. Brown argues this ending is consistent with Mark's theology, where even miracles, such as the resurrection, do not produce the proper understanding or faith among Jesus' followers.
Jesus' appearances and his ascension into heaven
The chapter then describes Jesus appearing to Mary Magdalene, who is now described as someone whom Jesus healed from possession by seven demons. She tells the other disciples what she saw but no one believes her. Jesus' appearances to Mary are also found in Matthew 28:9-10, Luke 24:10-11, and John 20:14-18.
Then, somewhere else, he appears "in a different form" to two unnamed disciples. They too are disbelieved when they tell of what they saw. Jesus appearing to two disciples is also in Luke 24:13-35.
Jesus then appears at dinner to all the remaining eleven Apostles. He then rebukes them for not believing the earlier reports of his resurrection and then gives them instructions to go and preach his message and heal others - the Great Commission. Those who believe will be "saved".
Jesus says that signs will accompany those who believe, including speaking in new languages. These tongues could be the languages of the various Christian communities. It could also be glossolalia. They will also be able to handle snakes (see also Acts 28:3-6), be immune from poison, and will be able to heal the sick. Those who do not believe will be condemned. By stating this and showing the examples of unjustified unbelief, this could be trying to convince the reader to rely on what the disciples preached about Jesus.
Jesus is then taken up into Heaven, where Mark claims he sits at the right hand of God. The right hand is seen as the position of power. Jesus quoted Psalm 110:1 in Mark 11 about the second Lord sitting at the right hand of God. His Eleven then went out and preached "everywhere" and several signs and help from God accompanied their preaching. His ascension is also in Luke 24:50-51 and Acts 1:9-11. Where these things happened is not stated.
The longer ending
Almost all contemporary New Testament textual critics have concluded that Mark's gospel originally ended at chapter 16 verse 8.
There are various theories as to why the earlier versions of the gospel end at Mark 16:8.
Most believe that the author of Mark intentionally ended the gospel at Mark 16:8, and someone else at an early date completed the gospel.
A few suggest that the original ending of Mark was lost, and somebody else at a very early date completed the gospel. C. H. Turner has suggested that the original version of the gospel may have been a codex and the last pages may have been lost.
However it seems unlikely that Christian use of the codex form streched as far back as the proposed date for the writing of Mark, though there is evidence for its adoption in the second century.
A few suggest that more than one edition of Mark's Gospel was made, so some Christian communities would have possessed the longer ending edition, and others would have possessed the edition that stoped at 16:8.
Some suggest that the original ending was inconvenient to the church, and it was replaced.
Few doctrines of the mainline Christian denominations stand or fall on the support of the longer ending of Mark. The longer ending does identify Mary Magdalene as the woman out of whom Jesus had exorcised seven demons (but so does Luke 8:2).
Mark 16:16 is sometimes cited as evidence for the requirement of baptism for salvation.
Mark 16:17 is specifically cited as Biblical support for some Pentecostal denominations' teachings concerning exorcism and spiritual warfare, and also in support of speaking in tongues. The practice of snake handling and of drinking strychnine and other poisons, found in a few offshoots of Pentecostalism, find their Biblical support in Mark 16:18. These churches typically justify these practices as "confirming the word with signs following" (KJV), which references Mark 16:20. Other denominations believe that these texts indicate the power of the Holy Spirit given to the apostles, but do not believe that they are recommendations for worship.
The longer ending was declared canonical scripture by the Council of Trent. No Roman Catholic however is required to believe that Mark wrote this ending.
This article is a stub. You can help WikiChristian by expanding it. For help please read the WikiChristian Tutorial and our writing guide.
Return to Christianity -> Bible -> Mark